THE MYSTERY AND MAJESTY OF LOCAL CONTENT

THE ENABLERS

The Creative Industries are an annual US$2.2 trillion economy according to UNESCO’s 2000 statistics, with a then projected growth rate of 5% per annum. The cluster of Art, Culture, and the Creative is now the second largest industry on planet Earth. Both developed and developing countries- from Australia to Dubai to Nigeria- have been employing it to transform their landscapes and media-scapes to leverage the transformation of their economies into Service and Information Technology-based economies. The Creative Industry has replaced the traditional economic powerhouses such as the extractive and manufacturing sectors as the go-to growth engine of the world’s economy. This creative renaissance- and the empowerment and enrichment of its practitioners and their nations- is passing Trinidad and Tobago straight by…

The reason is that the current Creative Industries economy with all its working parts was built on 4 waves of enablers- policies, legislations, fiscal enablers, institutions- implemented by developed countries from the period of the World Wars to the present. Local Content was indispensable to that architecture. T&T’s political leaders for decades have refused to implement these enablers, so we do not have the systems in place to economise our creative potential.

  1. The first wave of enablers could be said to have been started with Europe’s Local Content Quotas for their Film Industries immediately after World War I and the Broadcast policies that were being generated for radio and television in those early decades. This continued in America during the 1930s Depression with Roosevelt’s New Deal Federal Arts Programme which dynamised local and community Arts and also established a template for National Art in America. The first wave continued right after the end of WWII with the rebuilding of European and American national economies devastated by war where local Culture and the Arts were seen to be indispensable to that rebuilding. That period saw the creation of National Arts Councils in Britain; and the refinement of the Heritage apparatus of Museums, Galleries that had been established in the 17th and 18th centuries. The institutions and interventions of this period created the foundation of the modern Creative Industry.
  2. The second wave of enablers came in the 1960s with the rise of television and the maturation of radio which saw nations develop sophisticated policies as regards their broadcast airwaves- the FCC in America developed a series of guidelines which it considered ‘in the public interest.’
  3. The third wave was a reaction to the second wave- this was the first wave of Local Content Quotas which was a response by other developed nations to the onslaught of American programming. In the 70s and 80s- starting with Canada in 1971- more and more nations employed Quotas and an array of tools to restrict American penetration to their markets and to build their own local capacity, programming, and products. (see the table for the long list of countries currently employing Local Content Quotas to grow their Film, TV, and Music Industries) This was also the period of the creation and global operating of the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) which attempted to police the world of intellectual property.
  4. The fourth and final period to date was a period of regularisation related to the new telecommunication and IT industries led by international Intellectual Property treaties in the 90s. The Uruguay Round in 1994 created the World Trade Organization (WTO) and included the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) which was the first single, truly international agreement that established minimum standards of protection for several forms of intellectual property. These protocols truly empowered Content creators by protecting their rights internationally. This 4th wave of enablers has been extensive- innovating and refining policies, legislation, and institutions created during the past 3 stages. Museums, Arts Councils, Local Content regimes, have all been polished and retooled to very clinical specifications to accomplish very quantifiable economic and social gains. The Local Content policies implemented by Australia, the UK, and Canada saw to strong domestic music, TV, and film industries which had downstream benefits for their theatre, fashion, and other Arts. This resulted in them exporting 3 generations of lead talents who have taken over Hollywood and Billboard from Kenau Reeves, Ryan Gosling, Rachel Mc Adams, Nicole Kidman, Mel Gibson, Heath Ledger, Hugh Jackman, Russel Crowe, Chris Helmsworth, Hugh Grant, Daniel Craig, Idris Elba, James Blunt, Adele, Coldplay, and much more.

These 4 waves of enablers are responsible for the current multi-trillion dollar global Creative Economy by incubating threads of backward and forward linkages throughout generations of creative practitioners, products, and institutions in nations. Local Content Quotas have been indispensable to it by allowing nations- apart from America- to generate quantities and quality of local talents and products. All that wealth that is generated by each of the countries engaged in this mammoth Creative Economy is intellectual property owned, manipulated, and/or managed by local practitioners. That Intellectual Property is what we call Local Content. It is the indigenous imagination, native skill, and tangible and intangible legacies of each of these nations which is now the basis of their wealth. Every nation who wanted to enter that Industry replicated the series of enablers to equip their systems- except us.

Without these basic common-sense enablers all the platitudes about Diversification and the Creative Sector by our political class is just one set of ole talk…

THE LOCAL BATTLE

The Artists’ Coalition of Trinidad and Tobago (ACTT) has been battling for these enablers for the last 17 years with a host of local and international allies. It is a struggle inherited from 2 generations of thinkers, artists, and cultural workers since Independence. In ACTT’s 17 years there have been some victories- the signing of major UNESCO treaties, etc but in most cases there has been mostly paralysis around the progressive agenda and despair as administration after administration refuses to engage international precedent.

However, at the moment there may be a glimmer of hope. In July 2013 ACTT president, Rubadiri Victor, was contracted by the Minister of Arts and Multiculturalism to get the progressive agenda into the Ministry’s system. It has been war at close quarters… After 1 year of blood and sand Cabinet approved the following: the creation of an Arts Council; the commissioning of 24 Memoirs and Histories of T&T artforms and cultural heroes; the creation of Genius Grants; and the regularisation of the land-tenure of all the Panyards in the country. Over at the Ministry of National Diversity and Social Integration battles have been won around the retooling of the National Trust to international Best Practice standards and the re-staffing of the National Museum Board. Also, 24 years after the passing of the National Trust legislation in 1991, in June this year, T&T finally got its first buildings listed and protected as Heritage Sites! Also on the cards is hopefully the creation of a National Heritage Warehouse which would be the cornerstone of storage and curation for the National Museum Complex and all its component arms- which are all due to receive resources…

If these 2 Ministries follows through and establish these institutions with integrity and then support the passage of Local Content Quota legislation T&T would finally have instituted the first stages of enablers the rest of the world started in the late 1920s. We would finally be able to partake in the wealth of the Creative Economy.

The tragedy of course is that we would be 90 years late!!! The absence of these enablers meant that generations of T&T creative genius could not have capitalised during periods of our Golden Age. Instead we witnessed lost opportunities and creative abortions for generations of creative practitioners who did not have the facilitative environment to graduate en masse to the next level.

Creative Industry systems are based upon very specific cornerstones- Heritage curation, Arts Council disbursement of funding, Arts education, Public Art, Local Content protection, tailored-fiscal programmes for creative products, and the constant facilitation of innovation, equity, and transparency throughout the system.

To give an example of how that system works: under-employed JK Rowling received a grant from the Arts Council to finish write a book called Harry Potter; the book was accepted by a British publisher- an industry nurtured by enablers; the book went on to win a series of national book prizes set up to incentivise writing; the book was auctioned to a larger publisher and became an international best seller where it was optioned by a Hollywood studio; Rowling insisted in her contract that the films must use British actors and locations; the production was carried to the UK where it utilised UK theatrical, TV, and Film talent and studios nurtured by the Arts Councils and Quotas; it was shot in buildings protected by their National Trust. Most of the support personnel from costumes to sets to technicians were the result of policies and institutions devoted to Arts Education and passing on traditional British skills like armour making, iron mongering, etc. The book and its spin-off industries in film, merchandise, etc has conservatively been worth over US $3 billion to the UK… Overall the Harry Potter economy is worth more than $10 billion and counting…

This is where the tragic comparisons with Trinidad and Tobago come in. Whereas Harry Potter is indeed a once in several lifetimes phenomena T&T has had its fair share of multi-million dollar and possible billion dollar properties- but we have had no enablers to incubate them to the next level. This next part of the article will look at the sheer quantity and quality of local content that exists in T&T that has being wasted.

THE CASE OF LITERATURE

Globally recognised Trinidad authors:
Selvon, Lovelace, Naipaul, CLR James, Lawrence Scott, Wayne Brown, Oonya Kempado, and Nalo Hopkinson, Derek Walcott.
We have not understood how to capture the ambient economies around these authors and their texts- from Heritage Sites, adaptations, reprints, stage, TV, and Film products, merchandise, etc.

THE CASE OF MUSIC

T&T is a metroplis of music, generating dozens of unique styles for which we are the source. Each form has its own diaspora- all refer to T&T as the fount. We have not understood the power of this in the least… Trinidad has one of the oldest recording industries in the world- 101 years to date. Calypso is the source music of the entire Caribbean Basin- as far North as New Orleans, far east as the Atlantic coast of  Central America, far south as Northern Columbia and Brazil, and as far west as West Africa… For 2 decades America toyed with Calypso as its next ‘pop culture’- after jazz. More than 35 Calypso movies were created. Songs like ‘Rum and Coca Cola’ spent 10 weeks at the top of Billboard. The first platinum album in the world was ‘Calypso’ by Harry Belafonte.

Trinidad also has produced a host of global musical stars: Winnifred Atwell- arguably our most successful musical artist- was a multi-platinum artist who sold out international tours and had numerous world records to her name. She played ragtime piano.

Billy Ocean was Europe’s most successful black musician; 3 US #1s; a Grammy; over 30 million records sold; numerous world charters; successful international tours; appeared on Live Aid; wrote songs for other artists; MOBO Lifetime Achievement Award… His career was facilitated by master T&T producer Keith Diamond who produced hits for Dionne Warwick and Michael Bolton… T&T producer Dexter Simmons has Grammys for working with Outkast and Michael Jackson…

T&T great multi-platinum percussionist, song-writer, and producer Ralph MacDonald has 3 Grammys. His hit ‘Just the Two of Us’ was written about Trinidad and Tobago. Heather Headley has one Grammy, multiple other awards, and charting albums and singles- singing R&B and Gospel.

T&T’s Foxy Brown- hip hop icon with over 3 million albums sold, 2 #1 albums and numerous charting singles. Nicki Minaj- first female solo artist to have seven singles on Billboard at the same time,  her song ‘Super Bass’ sold more than four million digital copies. Minaj has received numerous industry awards. She’s already considered “the most influential female rapper of all time”.

Right now Theophilus London- heralded by Kanye West, Jay-Z and others as the future of R&B and hip-hop- is darling of magazines like Vanity Fair and Esquire and is signed to Warner Brothers. The cunning Trinidad James also had a major label deal with Def Jam. There’s K-os- considered Canada’s top rapper with 2 Canadian platinum albums. ‘Brownman’ Nick Ali- considered one of Canada’s top jazz artists- has played on over 250 records. There’s Kwame Ryan- music director of major European orchestras who’s conducted premiere ballets and recordings. Phife Dawg of Tribe Called Quest-regarded as one of the 25 Best Rap Groups of All Time- has numerous gold and platinum records. There’s Chip Fu of the avant-garde rap group Fuschnickens. There’s also Spliff Star from Busta Rhyme’s Flipmode Squad. Z-Star has a brilliant alternative career in Europe. All these artists are operational- Trini, and unclaimed by us…

In the 70s Tony Wilson was bassist, vocalist and songwriter for multiple Gold record supergroup Hot Chocalate- until quitting for his solo career. He was especially big in Latin America. Trini super-group Kalyan had Billboard hits. Robert Bailey co-founded Osibisa- considered creators of World Music. None of these pioneers are recognized- none facilitated in their time.

T&T has world-acclaimed instrumentalists like Errol Ince who played with Sinatra and was Europe’s top jazz trumpeter. Fitzroy Coleman is still on most lists of top 100 guitarists. Most Trinis don’t know the inventor of reggae is Trini- Nerlyn Taitt. The inventor of English reggae is another Trini- Joseph Mansano! All are Trini pioneers- instrumental in world music history. We’re clueless about them.
And of course local-boy KMC has his mega-recording deal with Universal- the largest Caribbean recording deal outside Rihanna. And currently we have BUNJI Garlin who is helping mainstream Soca with his VP Records deal with RCA Records.

These internationals represent the outer tier of our talents. Those who had to leave to rise. We have been clueless in understanding how to maximise them as gate openers and brand champions. That cohort exists alongside the massive population of Soca, Calypso, Chutney, and Parang singers who are mostly the people who the T&T layperson knows. And what an enormous stable of genius- apart from the Golden Age pantheon of Attilah, Lion, Tiger, Kitchener, Spoiler, Sundar, and Sparrow there are the mid-generation geniuses of Shorty, Maestro, Shadow, Stalin, Super Blue, Rose, and the like. Between them and the present stands the colossus David Rudder and the phenomena of Rapso and Andre Tanker.

In the present there is Machel who rules over the Soca kingdom where there are many brilliant artists and songs being generated- especially in the Groovy category. Talents like Olatunji, Kes, Benjai are just the tip of a sunberg… The lack of enablers has resulted in all kinds of imbalances, for instance at present (until Bunji and KMC) one person earned upwards of $56 million in a year and below him would be about 7 artists earning between $1.6 million to $750,000 a year. Below them would be subsistence level artists… That is not an industry. The fact however is that the country really has about 60 artists that could be earning upwards of $50 million a year and hundreds more who could be earning between $1- 20 million a year. Those artists simply require facilitation- and the boost that Content Quotas bring. The thing is that many of the artists who are the multi-million earners are not anyone that currently many Trinis know, and many would not be doing any form of music that Trinis currently recognise as Trinbagonian. This is because in the absence of Quotas the majority of music in Trinidad has been silenced. 80% of the Soca and Calypso released is not played by radio and almost 100% of the other forms of music created is not played…

Five years ago ACTT sent out a call for musicians to submit non-soca, non-chutney, non-festival local music. They received over 1,000 albums in about a week! They now have over 3,000 CDs, recorded in the last five or so years, by mostly young Trinbago artists.
It’s a drop in the bucket of what exists and could exist. Bear in mind this is Trini-rock, reggae, R&B, electronica, jazz, fusion, rapso, and other styles. The first 2,000 CDs — most with laid-out covers and notes — had on average six songs. The average cost of doing a song in the studio is $6,000. Let’s do the math. That’s 2000 CDs with six songs — 12,000 songs by $6,000 a song. That’s $72 million spent by young artists in the last five years on music that basically was never played by our 37 radio stations! That is madness, youth oppression and cultural genocide.

Annual attendance at industry trade-expos is the tried and true method of getting deals in the music industry. Contingents are sponsored by major labels or by nations. The only times we went were spearheaded by private individuals. We went four times in the last 18 years to MIDEM — at the time the most important. The return on those four times was an astounding $150 million in deals — for less than $5 million spent. Every single international breakthrough our industry has gotten stems from these trips. The deals include KMC’s signing, the signing of at least five albums that went gold, the multi-million earning “Who Let the Dogs Out” deal, etc… Imagine if we’d gone every year with the full complement of songs and artistes!

Most of these deal-getting songs were not “hits” in Trinidad. Most have been killed by radio programmers since. However they are multi-million dollar-earning songs internationally! Similarly hundreds of the songs assassinated by radio gatekeepers are potential earners.

ACTT believes that direct earnings from musicians alone could bring in net $.5 billion in foreign exchange annually. The two greatest saboteurs of our music and TV and film industry are: lack of airplay, and the failure of governments to fund merit-based contingents to trade-expos. There are many repercussions- at present only .05% of our artistes tour — this number should be 35%!

Of the 12,000 songs, there are hundreds of genius tracks that can contend internationally — being flag-bearers for that artiste’s international career. Each one of those is worth hundreds of thousands- possibly millions of dollars in foreign exchange. In the rest there are thousands of songs — for all formats — that should be played on radio regularly. On ACTT’s radio programme “Indigenous” (every Tuesday 8-10 p.m. on Power 102FM) — the only place you’ll hear this music — they’ve played over 600 new releases by these artists in the last 2 years.

The list of genius multi-million earners contains few names Trinis know- and some unexpected ones, the country would do good by itself to start to get familiar with these people’s music: joint pop; 12; Gyazette; Ataklan; The Blackmans (3 bands- Sheldon’s, Isaac’s, and Madge’s); Freetown Collective; Russel Leonce; Collis Durante; Lyndon Livingstone; Sean Thomas; Ettiene Charles; John John; Maximus Dan; Benjai; Olatunji; Gail-Ann Stephens; A_phake; Squeezy Rankin; Isasha; Marlon Asha; Orange Sky; Celsa Baptiste; Shadow; Relator; Robert Munroe; Boogsie Sharpe; Pamberi; Renegades; Phase II; Desperadoes; and more… How many names did you know?…

That distance between the unrealised potential and the present paralysis is what Local Content Quotas and the Industry enablers is supposed to erase. The practitioners are creating quality content but the broadcasters are not fulfilling their end of the bargain. Trinidad’s local content hovers at between 5-10% and our stations and channels operate more like distributors for foreign media multi-corporations. Local Content will turn them into distributors of local content. In the same way the 200+ animations, features, and short films generated by the T&T Film Company, the T&T Film Festival, and Animae Caribe in the last 8 years could finally find a home on our screens…

JUST SOME COUNTRIES WITH QUOTAS:

At the end of World War I European nations implemented quotas to protect their cinemas from American products. At the end of World War II America attempted to turn this around as part of post-war treaties eg Blum-Byrnes with France. However with GATT negotiations all this was overturned- UK, Norway, and Czechoslovakia pioneered the language equating Quotas with sovereignty.

  1. Argentina- 40% local content. Imposes costs on foreign films.
  2. Australia- Commercial television: 55% from 6:00 am to midnight; subscription providers 10%; public television has mandates written into their charter. The ABC Charter requires the broadcaster ‘to provide within Australia innovative and comprehensive broadcasting services of a high standard’ and:
    1. {broadcast) programs that contribute to a sense of national identity and
      inform and entertain, and reflect the cultural diversity of, the Australian community;
    2. and (broadcast) programs of an educational nature.
      Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983, s 6 Charter of the Corporation (1).
  3. Barbados- music 35%
  4. Brazil, Taxes foreign film and television programs. For ‘open’ (free-to-air) television broadcasters, 80% of programs must be local
  5. Bulgaria- 50% European and Bulgarian
  6. Canada- the international benchmark- it has produced thousands of international artists because of quotas- 35% and, in the case of francophone radio stations, minimum of 55%. Public service television: 60% overall annually, 60% from 6:00 pm to midnight. Private television broadcasters: 60% overall annually, 50% from 6:00 pm to midnight. Pay and specialty television services: 16 to 100% depending on the service, but most are required to meet at least 30%. Pay-per-services: 1 Canadian : 20 non- Canadian films, 1 Canadian : 7 non-Canadian events.
  7. Chile- 50%
  8. China- many restrictions on films, TV, and radio, also internet.
  9. Costa Rica, 50%
  10. European Union – 50% quota for European programming across all member states- interfacing with their national quota systems
  11. France- French-language songs for 40% during peak hours, with at least half of the material being from new artists or new productions. 60% European work on TV with 40% being French, Cinemas must reserve 5 weeks per quarter for French films
  12. Hungary
  13. Republic of Ireland
  14. Indonesia: In 2009 declared no more than 60% of films screened could be foreign.
  15. Israel, Restrictions on advertising.
  16. Korea- Terrestrial television: imported programmes limited to 20%. Cable television: foreign sports, science, and documentary programmes limited to 50%. All other kinds of foreign programming, including films, limited to 30%.Until 2006, it enforced a screen quota requiring cinemas to reserve 146 days per year for Korean films. Cut to 73 days per year in response to pressure from the US during protracted free trade agreement negotiations. Foreign popular music capped at 40% of all music broadcast.
  17. Latvia- Terrestrial television: 80% European of which 40% must be Latvian
  18. Macedonia- 20% own programmes in the first year, 30% in the second year, 40% in the third year
  19. Malaysia- Television: 60% of programming in national language, increasing to 80% by 2000, for free-to-air television and certain cable and satellite channels. Radio: 60% local origin, increasing to 80% by 2000.80% of television programs must be produced by local companies owned by ethnic Malays. 60% of radio programming must be local.
  20. Mexico- exceptionally strict policies
  21. Netherlands- 50% European productions
  22. New Zealand.
  23. Nigeria, 80% music quotas
  24. Philippines- at least four original Filipino compositions an hour
  25. Poland- 30% Polish
  26. Portugal- Private television: 30%
  27. Romania- 50% European 40% must be Romanian productions
  28. Singapore: Restricts use of satellite dishes.
  29. Slovenia- 55% European productions.
  30. Spain- Private television: 40% own productions, 50% of film broadcasts must be Spanish and European.
  31. South Africa, in 1997- 20% of music broadcast from5 a.m. – 11 p.m- Public television: at least 50% Subscription television: at least 5%. Radio: at least 20%- Revised in 2003 with overall quotas raised to 35% for commercial broadcasters; 55% for public broadcasters; 8% for terrestrial subscription services; Specific quotas for genres- documentaries, dramas, educational programmes, etc. A points system was introduced to take account for local language and other issues. Repeats are penalised. Commercial radio quotas were increased from 20- 25%
  32. Sweden- Public service television: 55% in-house production and an increasing proportion (not specified) from independent Swedish producers. Commercial radio: 33% of airtime must be dedicated to local programmes.
  33. Uruguay: 30% local content
  34. Venezuela: Content quota of at least 50% on television. 50% of radio programming must be local. In the case of music, 50 percent of the Venezuelan produced material must be traditional Venezuelan songs. Annual distribution and exhibition quota for Venezuelan films.
  35. Europe: Television without Borders Directive – 50% quota for European programming. The EU Directive on Audiovisual Media Services was implemented in 2009.
  36. Ukraine: Local content quotas for radio and television but not enforced.
  37. Brunei earlier this century set itself a local content target of 60% for Radio Television Brunei. The schedule indicates a high level of local content mixed with Malay content.
  38. Japan: Local stations must broadcast at least 10% self-produced programming. 10% of all programming screened by commercial channels must be education programs and a further 20 % must be dedicated to cultural programs. However 95% of all programming on terrestrial television is Japanese
  39. Italy legislation to force local TV networks to air more homegrown movies via new investment and programming quotas, praised by local producers who lost a roughly 10% market share in 2012 at the home box office, in terms of grosses, and had long been clamoring for more TV air play. Quotas, set out in a draft decree, force pubcaster RAI to spend 3.6% of its total revenue on either production, financing and pre-buys or acquisitions of Italo movies. Other broadcasters must invest 3.5% of net profits in local fare. As for programming, RAI must air homegrown pics for at least 1.3% of total airtime on its three generalist stations and 4% on its six niche channels. Commercial broadcasters, starting with Silvio Berlusconi’s Mediaset, must air Italo movies on generalist channels for 1% of total airtime, and 3% of total airtime on niche channels. The new TV rules are expected to guarantee investment worth at least €200 million ($267 million) annually.
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Posted on November 12, 2014, in President's Blog and tagged , . Bookmark the permalink. 3 Comments.

  1. The opening sentence is misleading and does not source the originator accurately. “The Creative Industries are an annual US$2.2 trillion economy according to UNESCO’s 2000 statistics,” morphs into two competing quotes that share that $2.2 trillion number. John Howkins, a UK expert on the creative industries and author of the book “The Creative Economy: How People Make Money From Ideas” (2001) said in a paper delivered in 2005 in China that, “the creative economy was worth US$2.2 trillion in 2001, US$2.9 trillion this year and will be worth US$4.1 trillion in 2010.” http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-12/26/content_506502.htm

    “Global Entertainment and Media Outlook: 2008-2012” published by PricewaterhouseCoopers in 2008 projected the “entertainment and media industry in United States, EMEA (Europe, Middle East, Africa), Asia Pacific, Latin America and Canada will increase…to $2.2 trillion in 2012.”
    http://www.swissmediatool.ch/_files/researchDB/210.pdf

    The repetition of the $2.2 trillion number without context or comparison offers no benefit when countries in Caribbean are not even counted in the statistical analyses proffered.

  2. Rubadiri Victor

    Nigel. That particular article was written on a plane without access to the source data at hand- always meant to add it in when I landed. However it is a figure often quoted by us with the relevant source cited. UNESCO and UNCTAD have used it as the basis of a lot of their mobilisations for and on behalf of the Creative Industries in the last decade and a half. British writer/media manager John Howkins wrote the paper in 2000/2001 and began developing the theory of the relation between creativity and the economy then. It actually was following on from discourses from the Frankfurt and Scandinavian schools of thought on the matter. The idea of the Creative economy as a process that covers activities of creative industries many of which fall within the field of the traditional economy and were not labelled so before. According to Howkins (2007), neither creativity nor economy is new, but new is their interrelation, origin, and scope how these two unify and create exclusive value and wealth. Howkins provides a wide understanding of creative economy which is related to fifteen creative industries from arts to wider spheres of science and technologies. According to Howkins’s calculation in 2000, creative economy was worth 2.2 trillion US dollars and had 5% of annual growth. As Howkins explained, there exist two types of creativity: related to humans creativity as individual self- satisfaction and creativity creating products. First type of creativity is universal human characteristics apparent in all societies and cultures. The other type of creativity is more often in industrial societies where novelties, science and technological innovations as well as intellectual property rights are more qualified. Howkins’s original stats have become bolstered by many national studies since and UNESCO’s further exploration of this Economy which they have championed. Their latest Report takes the exploration further and is required reading for the Sector: http://www.unesco.org/culture/pdf/creative-economy-report-2013.pdf

  1. Pingback: THE WRECK OF THE REPUBLIC | Artists' Coalition of Trinidad and Tobago

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